Employee development programs are another aspect of talent management. these activities provide employees with opportunities to learn new ideas and skills, thus preparing them for future positions and challenges. Types of employee development include the following:
College/ University and Continuing Education -
Tuition reimbursement programs are sometimes offered by organizations to support employees' education and development. Most organizations require that the program attended by the employee directly pertain to their job responsibilities.
Committee/ Team Participation
Other development strategies include employee involvement on committees and work teams. Employees are exposed to group decision making and collaborative processes, other areas of the organization, and outside agencies. These assignments can provide challenging activitie, enrich employee knowledgeand develop leadership capabilities. Employees may also receive recognition and rewards. Unfortunately, certain teams may violate Section 8(a)(2) of the National Labor Relations Act relative to employer-dominated committies, as determined in the 1992 Electromation decision.
usually relates to technical skills training. Employers or groups of employers and unions design, organize, manage, and finance registered apprenticeship programs under a set of apprenticeship standards that include an on-the-job training outline, a related classroom instruction curriculum, and the apprenticeship operating procedures. The U.S. apprenticeship system is regulated by the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT) of the U.S. Department of Labor.
Job rotation, Enlargement, and Enrichment
Job rotation is the movement between different jobs. Multi-skilled employees benefit the employer by providing a wider internal staff to fill open positions.
Job enlargement occurs when the employee is doing different tasks within the same job. Adding more tasks give the employees a variety of responsibilities that require the same level of skill.
Job enrichment increases the depth of a job by adding responsibilities such as planning, organizing, controlling, and evaluation.
The concept of internal mobility in career development involves a number of activities, including promotions, demotions, relocations, and transfers. These mobility options are strengthened when partnered with job enrichment and job enlargement programs.
Succession Planning/ Replacement Planning
Succession planning is a talent management strategy to help identify and foster the development of high-potential employees. It is a dynamic, ongoing process of systematically identifying, assessing, and developing leadership talent to contribute to the achievement of future strategic goals. This activity determines which employees might benefit from different organizational experiences and pinpoints the training or development they will need to advance in the organization. It identifies employees who may be considered ready for future higher-level positions as they become available.
An organization's strategic goals can best be achieved if an effective program for leadership succession is in place. Employers need to be careful not to exclude from their succession plans solely because of employees as professional, managerial, and technical personnel to satisfy these needs.
A succession plan contains the following information (input):
- Managerial position requirements
- Succession requirements
- Candidate data
- Appraisal of performance and development needs
A succession plan provides the following information (output):
- Individuals' aspirations and related development plans
- Planned broadening experiences
- Summaries of candidate availability
- Tentative plans for meeting shortages for surpluses
A study of benchmarked organizations that enacted succession planning programs advises the following points on structuring this type of program:
- It should be tailored to fit the organization.
- It must be driven and supported by top management and guided by HR.
- Each employee must take ownership of his or her own development, with development and support from management.
- The current and ideal cultures must be identified and the program aligned with achieving the ideal.
- Employees in the program should be selected and monitored through the use of multi-rater assessment.
Wheras succession planning is more concerned with long-range needs and the cultivation of qualified talent to satisfy those needs, replacement planning concentrates on immediate needs and a "snapshot" assessment of the availability of qualified backup for key positions.